Cytosquelette d’actine et déformations membranaires : du liposome à la reconstruction cellulaire

Abstract : Cells move and change shape by dynamically reorganizing their cytoskeleton next to the plasma membrane. The biopolymer actin is a major component of the cytoskeleton that constantly assembles and disassembles, thus generating forces and stresses that deform the cell membrane. My thesis addresses the role of actin and acto-myosin in organising membranes and controlling their shape. I developed a system of actin shells formed at beads surface or at the cell-sized liposome membrane through actin polymerization and used skeletal myosin motors to induce shell contraction. This system mimics the function of two different actin structures that are involved in these processes. One is the lamellipodium at the cell front, where actin polymerization is activated at the membrane and pushes the membrane forward. The other one is the cell cortex, a sub-micrometer thick actin shell right beneath the cell membrane, which contributes to cell tension with the action of molecular motors.
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Contributor : Joel Lemiere <>
Submitted on : Tuesday, May 12, 2015 - 11:06:34 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, March 21, 2019 - 2:44:38 PM
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Joel Lemiere. Cytosquelette d’actine et déformations membranaires : du liposome à la reconstruction cellulaire. Biophysique [physics.bio-ph]. Université Paris Diderot, 2014. Français. ⟨tel-01151494⟩

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