De l'utopie marxienne comme trace de vérité à la dévictimisation du prolétariat chez Rancière : la pensée de la lutte chez Proudhon, Marx et Rancière

Abstract : How far is the critique of Utopian socialism essential to the Marxist political project, and how does Jacques Rancière redefine this project by transforming or "devictimizing" the role given to the proletariat? In his criticism of Proudhon's anarchism, Marx points to some critical excess in the concept of socialist Utopia: on the one hand this utopia is simply an inadequate critical model, but on the other hand it is, as a result of this excess, a trace of truth. I will try and show how this ambiguity is pivotal to understanding how the proletariat is a universal victim in the Marxian framework, and how Rancière criticizes and makes use of this ambiguity in order to reshape a different and yet closely related concept of politics. Finally I would like to specify how Proudhon's, Marx's and Rancière's political projects constitute three different ways of theorizing the political struggle, that is to say three different ways of shaping a revolutionary movement in relation to a specific type of "wrong" (Utopian wrong, absolute wrong, generic wrong).
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Anders Fjeld. De l'utopie marxienne comme trace de vérité à la dévictimisation du prolétariat chez Rancière : la pensée de la lutte chez Proudhon, Marx et Rancière. Encyclo. Revue de l'école doctorale ED 382, Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2012, p.88-97. ⟨hal-00725855⟩

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